The use of hydrogen and electric propulsion in rail is reshaping the industry, a key topic at the Sustainable Mobility Congress. Hydrogen fuel cells offer a promising clean energy solution, potentially revolutionizing rail efficiency. Electric propulsion is also gaining traction, surpassing traditional diesel engines in both efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Implementing energy-saving measures, like regenerative braking and aerodynamic enhancements, further reduces energy use. Additionally, harnessing renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, for rail systems is a growing focus. The integration of these technologies could significantly transform rail transport into a more sustainable, efficient system, marking a new era in railway innovation.